# Roman Numerals - Rules, Chart | What Are Roman Numbers?

While you imagine numericals nowadays, the first thing that springs to mind is the decimal method we use regularly. This method, however, is not the single way to depict numericals. There are a lot of methods utilized by distinct cultures worldwide that use all types of symbols. One of method is Roman numbers.

Given that ancient Rome, Roman numbers have been a method of writing numbers utilizing a blend of characters from the Latin alphabet. It existed during the Middle Ages and the modern day, to the point it is still taught in school, which is perhaps why you have stumbled upon this blog.

Today, we are gonna to look at Roman numbers, what they are, how they work, and how to transform Roman numerals to ordinary numbers.

## What Are Roman Numerals?

Primarily, let's check a quick look at the history of Roman numerals. Roman numbers were first utilized by the historic Romans, as you may have guessed from the name. They were employed in several aspects of the Roman world, including trade, architecture, and even warfare.

Currently, its widespread use is primarily because of its artistic reasons. You might have seen Roman numerals as hour marks on a clock, copyright dates, page numbering, chapter numbers, or in film sequels (e.g., The Godfather Part II).

The Roman number approach represents numericals using a combination of characters from the Latin alphabet. Letters are mixed to make groups that represent numbers. Seven alphabets, I, V, X, L, C, D, and M, depicts the numbers 1, 5, 10, 50, 100, 500, and 1000, separately. You can then combine these numbers to represent any value in the numerical system.

### Meaning of the Roman numerals

While the decimal system is founded on the ideas of place value, Roman numbers are based on additive and subtractive principles. This states that a Roman number's numeric values are established on the sum of the values of its individual parts. Another key difference is that the decimal approach is established on the number 10. In comparison, Roman numerals are based on the numericals 1 (I), 5 (V) and 10 (X).

### Examples

Let's take a look at a few interactive examples of Roman numbers.

The electronic game street fighter IV was released in arcades way back in 2008. If we look at the numericals in the name, we see it consist of a V in it. This is because the numerical 5 in Roman number is represented by the alphabet V. Preceded by it is an I, or 1. Thus, we comprehend that this is the 4th entry in the series utilizing the characteristics we will talk about subsequently in the article.

The film Star Wars Episode VI was the latest entry in the original trilogy. Observing the value described, it comprises a V ensued by an I. Hence, we will sum a 1 to the value of V, which is 5, letting us know this Star Wars film is the 6th episode in the franchise.

## Roman Numerals Chart

To read Roman numbers, it is important to get a grasp of the numeric value of all the letters. To help make this operation easy, here is a chart with all Latin alphabets with assigned numeric values.

Decimal Number | Roman Numeral |

1 | I |

2 | II |

3 | III |

4 | IV |

5 | V |

6 | VI |

7 | VII |

8 | VIII |

9 | IX |

10 | X |

11 | XI |

12 | XII |

13 | XIII |

14 | XIV |

15 | XV |

16 | XVI |

17 | XVII |

18 | XVIII |

19 | XIX |

20 | XX |

21 | XXI |

22 | XXII |

23 | XXIII |

24 | XXIV |

25 | XXV |

26 | XXVI |

27 | XXVII |

28 | XXVIII |

29 | XXIX |

30 | XXX |

31 | XXXI |

32 | XXXII |

33 | XXXIII |

34 | XXXIV |

35 | XXXV |

36 | XXXVI |

37 | XXXVII |

38 | XXXVIII |

39 | XXXIX |

40 | XL |

41 | XLI |

42 | XLII |

43 | XLIII |

44 | XLIV |

45 | XLV |

46 | XLVI |

47 | XLVII |

48 | XLVIII |

49 | XLIX |

50 | L |

51 | LI |

52 | LII |

53 | LIII |

54 | LIV |

55 | LV |

56 | LVI |

57 | LVII |

58 | LVIII |

59 | LIX |

60 | LX |

61 | LXI |

62 | LXII |

63 | LXIII |

64 | LXIV |

65 | LXV |

66 | LXVI |

67 | LXVII |

68 | LXVIII |

69 | LXIX |

70 | LXX |

71 | LXXI |

72 | LXXII |

73 | LXXIII |

74 | LXXIV |

75 | LXXV |

76 | LXXVI |

77 | LXXVII |

78 | LXXVIII |

79 | LXXIX |

80 | LXXX |

81 | LXXXI |

82 | LXXXII |

83 | LXXXIII |

84 | LXXXIV |

85 | LXXXV |

86 | LXXXVI |

87 | LXXXVII |

88 | LXXXVIII |

89 | LXXXIX |

90 | XC |

91 | XCI |

92 | XCII |

93 | XCIII |

94 | XCIV |

95 | XCV |

96 | XCVI |

97 | XCVII |

98 | XCVIII |

99 | XCIX |

100 | C |

200 | CC |

300 | CCC |

400 | CD |

500 | D |

600 | DC |

700 | DCC |

800 | DCCC |

900 | CM |

1000 | M |

## How to Convert from Roman Numerals to Everyday Numbers

Since we have the convenient table of Roman numerals, we can utilize that data to transform numbers back and forth promptly. Following these steps, you will transform these values any time you want.

### Steps to Transform Roman numerals to Decimal Numbers

To transform Roman numerals to regular numbers, we will utilize the cumulative and subtractive principles we went through.

Begin with the leftmost Roman numerical in the group.

If the Roman number to its right is smaller in value, then add the two values.

If the Roman numerical to its right is more in value, deduct the Roman number on the right from the Roman numbers to its left.

All you must do now is replicate this process unless you arrive at the end of the Roman number group.

Let's see how you can transform Roman numbers with a few examples.

### Example 1

Study the Roman numeral LXXVI.

Initiate with the leftmost Roman numeral, which is L or 50.

The Roman number to its right is X or 10. Because 10 is less than 50, we sum the two values and get 60.

The Roman number to the right of X is X again. We sum 10 to 60 and find 70.

The Roman numeral to the right of X is V or 5. Considering 5 is less than 70, we add the two values and get 75.

The Roman numeral to the right of V is I or 1. Considering 1 is less than 75, we add the both values and get 76.

We stop here at the end of the Roman number group. Hence, the Roman number LXXVI is equal to the decimal number 76.

### Example 2

Consider the Roman number MCMIII.

Start at the leftmost Roman number, which is M or 1000.

The Roman numeral to its right is C or 100. Because 100 is less than 1000, and it is followed by an M, this value means 900.

The Roman number to the right of M is I or 1. Considering 1 is less than 1900, we add the both values and get 1901.

The Roman numeral to the right of I is I again. We sum 1 to 1901 and get 1902.

The Roman numeral to the right of I is I again. We add 1 to 1902 and get 1903.

Given that we have reached the end of the Roman number group, we halt here with our result. Therefore, the Roman number MCMIII is equal to the decimal number 1903.

With this data and a little practice, you will change Roman numerals to regular numbers like an expert!

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